Structural form of smart cards is undergoing rapid developments, beginning with contact-based shopping cards, cellphone SIM cards, chip credit cards and finally to the currently ubiquitous non-contact metro cards and EasyCard for taking public transport. All these cards have major differences in chip molding processes and structures.

Adhesives available include those used for flexible or rigid products, room temperature curing and photo-curing processes, as well as metal substrates or thin PC or PET sheets.